Anemia is a common finding in perioperative setting with significant untoward consequences including worsening of outcomes and diminished quality of life as well as increased risk of allogeneic blood transfusions. Here we present three cases that illustrate how anemia can be perioperatively managed in patients undergoing cardiac, orthopedic and oncology surgeries. Timely detection of anemia prior to high-blood loss surgeries can allow clinicians to manage it and optimize hemoglobin level, making patients better prepared for the surgery. Treatment of anemia should be guided by the etiology and may include erythropoietic agents, folic acid, B12 and iron preparations. Other blood management strategies geared toward reducing surgical blood loss such as autologous transfusion techniques and agents to optimize hemostasis are employed during surgery and in the immediate post-operative period. Patients should be closely monitored following the surgery for signs of ongoing bleeding in need of control. Finally, screening for and management of anemia should continue in the post-operative and post-discharge period, as persistence and recurrence of anemia can further undermine patient's outcomes.