Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is rare in healthy children,but an increasing problem in children with underlying medical conditions. Pediatric VTE encompasses a highly heterogenous population, with variation in age, thrombosis location and underlying medical co-morbidities. Evidence from pediatric clinical trials to guide treatment of VTE is lacking so treatment is often extrapolated from adult trials and expert consensus opinion. Aspects unique to children include developmental hemostasis and the major role of central venous access devices (CVAD). There is an absence of information regarding the optimal target levels of anticoagulation for neonates and infants and lack of suitable drug formulations. Anticoagulants, primarily LMWH and warfarin, are used to treat children with symptomatic VTE. These drugs have significant limitations including the need for subcutaneous injections and frequent monitoring. Randomized clinical trials of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) in pediatric VTE are ongoing, with results anticipated soon. These trials will provide new evidence and options for therapy that have the potential to improve care. International collaborative registries offer the ability to study outcomes of rare subgroups of pediatric VTE (eg renal vein thrombosis), and will be important to ultimately guide therapy in a more disease specific manner.

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