Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (LCH) is caused by clonal expansion of myeloid precursors that differentiate into CD1a+/CD207+ cells in lesions that leads to a spectrum of organ involvement and dysfunction. The pathogenic cells are defined by constitutive activation of the MAPK signaling pathway. Treatment of LCH is risk-adapted; patients with single lesions may respond well to local treatment, whereas patients with multi-system disease require systemic therapy. While survival for patients without organ dysfunction is excellent, mortality rates for patients with organ dysfunction may reach 20%. Despite progress made in the treatment of LCH, disease reactivation rates remain above 30%, and standard second-line treatment is yet to be established. Treatment failure is associated with increased risks of death and long-term morbidity, including LCH-associated neurodegeneration. Early case series report promising clinical responses in patients with relapsed and refractory LCH treated with BRAF or MEK inhibitors, although potential for this strategy to achieve cure remains uncertain.

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