Key Points

  • Among lymphoid malignancy patients treated with ibrutinib, the incidence of subsequent new hypertension is nearly 72%.

  • The development of new or worsened hypertension following ibrutinib initiation associates with a >2-fold increased risk of other cardiac events.

Ibrutinib is associated with dramatic efficacy against B-cell malignancies. Yet, ibrutinib is linked with potentially-limiting cardiotoxicity, including emerging reports of profound hypertension. However, the long-term incidence, severity, and impacts of hypertension development during ibrutinib-use are unknown. Therefore, from 562 consecutive patients treated with ibrutinib for B-cell malignancies between 2009-2016 we assessed the incidence of new/incident or worsened hypertension [systolic blood pressure (BP) cutoff of 130mmHg]. Observed incident-hypertension rates were compared to Framingham-heart predicted incident-hypertension rates. We also evaluated the relationship of hypertension on ibrutinib to the development of other major-adverse-cardiovascular-events (MACE), including arrhythmias, myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, and cardiovascular death. Further, we assessed the preventative and modulatory effects of antihypertensives, by medication-class, on ibrutinib-related hypertension. Overall, 78.3% of ibrutinib-users developed new or worsened hypertension [mean systolic BP increase 5.2mmHg ({plus minus}20.7)] over a median of 30months. New hypertension developed in 71.6% of ibrutinib-users (467 observed vs. 39 Framingham-predicted cases per 1,000 person-years), with a time-to-50% cumulative incidence of 4.2months. Among those without preceding hypertension, 17.7% developed high-grade (BP >160/100mmHg) hypertension. In multivariable regression containing known predictors of MACE, new or worsened hypertension was associated with increased MACE [hazard ratio (HR) 2.17, 95%CI 1.08-4.38]. No single-antihypertensive class was associated with prevention or control of ibrutinib-related hypertension. However, antihypertensive initiation was associated with a lower risk of MACE (HR 0.40, CI 0.24-0.66). Collectively, these data suggest ibrutinib is associated with substantial increase in the incidence and severity of hypertension, and that hypertension development may suggest a higher risk of subsequent cardiotoxic events.

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