Using whole-genome sequencing and RNA-seq, we characterized the genomic landscape of 295 DS-ALL cases and identified 15 distinct subtypes.
DS-ALL exhibits marked enrichment of RAG-mediated and C/EBP gene alterations and inferior outcomes in BCR::ABL1-like CRLF2-r cases.
Trisomy 21, the genetic cause of Down syndrome (DS), is the most common congenital chromosomal anomaly. It is associated with a 20-fold increased risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) during childhood and results in distinctive leukemia biology. To comprehensively define the genomic landscape of DS-ALL, we performed whole-genome sequencing and whole-transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) on 295 cases. Our integrated genomic analyses identified 15 molecular subtypes of DS-ALL, with marked enrichment of CRLF2-r, IGH::IGF2BP1, and C/EBP altered (C/EBPalt) subtypes compared with 2257 non–DS-ALL cases. We observed abnormal activation of the CEBPD, CEBPA, and CEBPE genes in 10.5% of DS-ALL cases via a variety of genomic mechanisms, including chromosomal rearrangements and noncoding mutations leading to enhancer hijacking. A total of 42.3% of C/EBP-activated DS-ALL also have concomitant FLT3 point mutations or insertions/deletions, compared with 4.1% in other subtypes. CEBPD overexpression enhanced the differentiation of mouse hematopoietic progenitor cells into pro-B cells in vitro, particularly in a DS genetic background. Notably, recombination-activating gene–mediated somatic genomic abnormalities were common in DS-ALL, accounting for a median of 27.5% of structural alterations, compared with 7.7% in non–DS-ALL. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analyses of CRLF2-rearranged DS-ALL identified substantial heterogeneity within this group, with the BCR::ABL1-like subset linked to an inferior event-free survival, even after adjusting for known clinical risk factors. These results provide important insights into the biology of DS-ALL and point to opportunities for targeted therapy and treatment individualization.