Our understanding and management of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) have dramatically improved in the last decade. aHUS has been established as a prototypic disease resulting from a dysregulation of the complement alternative C3 convertase. Subsequently, prospective nonrandomized studies and retrospective series have shown the efficacy of C5 blockade in the treatment of this devastating disease. C5 blockade has become the cornerstone of the treatment of aHUS. This therapeutic breakthrough has been dulled by persistent difficulties in the positive diagnosis of aHUS, and the latter remains, to date, a diagnosis by exclusion. Furthermore, the precise spectrum of complement-mediated renal thrombotic microangiopathy is still a matter of debate. Nevertheless, long-term management of aHUS is increasingly individualized and lifelong C5 blockade is no longer a paradigm that applies to all patients with this disease. The potential benefit of complement blockade in other forms of HUS, notably secondary HUS, remains uncertain.