RUNX1-deficient megakaryocytes exhibit thrombopoietic and platelet defects in NSG/VWFR1326H mice.
Preexposure of RUNX1-deficient megakaryocytes to a TGFβ1-pathway inhibitor ameliorated both defects, correcting hemostasis.
Heterozygous defects in runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1) are causative of a familial platelet disorder with associated myeloid malignancy (FPDMM). Because RUNX1-deficient animal models do not mimic bleeding disorder or leukemic risk associated with FPDMM, development of a proper model system is critical to understanding the underlying mechanisms of the observed phenotype and to identifying therapeutic interventions. We previously reported an in vitro megakaryopoiesis system comprising human CD34+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells that recapitulated the FPDMM quantitative megakaryocyte defect through a decrease in RUNX1 expression via a lentiviral short hairpin RNA strategy. We now show that shRX-megakaryocytes have a marked reduction in agonist responsiveness. We then infused shRX-megakaryocytes into immunocompromised NOD scid gamma (NSG) mice and demonstrated that these megakaryocytes released fewer platelets than megakaryocytes transfected with a nontargeting shRNA, and these platelets had a diminished half-life. The platelets were also poorly responsive to agonists, unable to correct thrombus formation in NSG mice homozygous for a R1326H mutation in von Willebrand Factor (VWFR1326H), which switches the species-binding specificity of the VWF from mouse to human glycoprotein Ibα. A small-molecule inhibitor RepSox, which blocks the transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) pathway and rescued defective megakaryopoiesis in vitro, corrected the thrombopoietic defect, defects in thrombus formation and platelet half-life, and agonist response in NSG/VWFR1326H mice. Thus, this model recapitulates the defects in FPDMM megakaryocytes and platelets, identifies previously unrecognized defects in thrombopoiesis and platelet half-life, and demonstrates for the first time, reversal of RUNX1 deficiency–induced hemostatic defects by a drug.