Twenty-eight percent of patients treated with caplacizumab had persistent ADAMTS13 activity <30% within 30 + 28 days after PEX.
In patients with ADAMTS13 activity <10% on stopping caplacizumab, an ADAMTS13 antigen level <30% had higher risk of recurrence.
The benefits of caplacizumab in acute immune-mediated thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (iTTP) are well established. We identified a delayed normalization of a disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 13 (ADAMTS13) activity (>30%) in a subgroup treated with caplacizumab, not evident in the precaplacizumab era. Patients treated with caplacizumab (n = 64) achieved ADAMTS13 activity >30% at median 31 days after plasma exchange (PEX), compared with 11.5 days in the noncaplacizumab group (n = 50, P = .0004). Eighteen of 64 (28%) patients treated with caplacizumab had ADAMTS13 activity <10% at stopping caplacizumab with a longer time to ADAMTS13 activity >30% (median, 139 days after completing PEX). Eighteen of 64 (28%) patients receiving extended caplacizumab (31-58 days) failed to achieve ADAMTS13 activity >30% at the time of caplacizumab cessation, compared with 4 of 47 (8.5%) historical controls at a similar timepoint (30 + 28 days, P < .0001). Failure to achieve ADAMTS13 activity >30% within 30 + 28 days was 6 times more likely with caplacizumab (odds ratio, 6.3; P = .0006). ADAMTS13 antigen <30% at caplacizumab cessation was associated with increased iTTP recurrence (4/10 vs 0/9 in patients with ADAMTS13 antigen ≥30%). Admission anti-ADAMTS13 immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody level did not predict recurrence. Anti-ADAMTS13 IgG antibody levels, immunosuppression, and ethnicity did not account for differences in ADAMTS13 activity response. ADAMTS13 antigen levels ≥30% may be useful to guide stopping caplacizumab therapy after extended use with ADAMTS13 activity <10%. The reason for delayed ADAMTS13 normalization is unclear and requires further investigation.