Immune-mediated thrombocytopenic purpura (iTTP) is a thrombotic microangiopathy characterized by an acquired ADAMTS13 deficiency as a result of the presence of an antibody inhibitor of ADAMTS13 leading to the formation of ultralarge von Willebrand multimers. Treatment of iTTP includes plasma exchange, high-dose glucocorticoids, rituximab, and, more recently, caplacizumab, to prevent the development of exacerbations. There is the risk of both relapse and long-term complications that include neurocognitive deficits and cardiovascular events that occur in patients in remission after recovery from an acute iTTP episode. Data on the risk factors for the development of these complications, the appropriate screening, and treatment are limited due to the paucity of research. This article is a review of the current understanding on the risk factors for exacerbation, relapse, and long-term complications of iTTP and discusses an approach to observing patients with iTTP after hospital discharge and during the long-term follow-up in the outpatient setting.

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