Patients treated with next generation BTKi therapy acalabrutinib still see a >8 fold risk of ventricular arrhythmia and sudden death events.
Ventricular arrhythmias may be a class effect of BTKi therapy, and vigilance is needed.
Acalabrutinib, a next-generation Bruton’s tyrosine kinase inhibitor (BTKi), associates with dramatic efficacy against B-cell malignancies. Recently, unexplained ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) with next-generation BTKi-therapy have been reported. Yet, whether acalabrutinib associates with VAs in long-term follow-up is unknown. Leveraging a large-cohort of 290 consecutive B-cell malignancy patients treated with acalabrutinib from 2014 to 2020, we assessed the incidence of VAs. The primary-endpoint was incident VA development (ventricular fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia, and symptomatic premature ventricular contractions). Probability-scores were assessed to determine likelihood of acalabrutinib-association. Incident rates as function of time-on-therapy were calculated. Weighted average observed incidence rates were compared with expected population rates using relative-risks. Absolute excess risk (AER) for acalabrutinib-associated VAs was estimated. Over 1063 person-years of follow-up, there were 8 cases of incident-VAs, including 6 in those without coronary disease (CAD) or heart failure (HF) and 1 sudden-death; median time-to-event 14.9 months. Among those without prior ibrutinib-use, CAD, or HF, the weighted average incidence was 394 per 100 000 person years compared with a reported incidence of 48.1 among similar-aged non–BTKi-treated subjects (relative risk, 8.2; P < .001; AER, 346). Outside of age, no cardiac or electrocardiographic variables associated with VA development. Collectively, these data suggest VAs may be a class-effect of BTKi therapies.