Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the gold standard curative therapy for infants and children with many inborn errors of immunity (IEI), but adolescents and adults with IEI are rarely referred for transplant. Lack of published HSCT outcome data outside small, single-center studies and perceived high risk of transplant-related mortality have delayed the adoption of HSCT for IEI patients presenting or developing significant organ damage later in life. This large retrospective, multicenter HSCT outcome study reports on 329 IEI patients (age range, 15-62.5 years at HSCT). Patients underwent first HSCT between 2000 and 2019. Primary endpoints were overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS). We also evaluated the influence of IEI-subgroup and IEI-specific risk factors at HSCT, including infections, bronchiectasis, colitis, malignancy, inflammatory lung disease, splenectomy, hepatic dysfunction, and systemic immunosuppression. At a median follow-up of 44.3 months, the estimated OS at 1 and 5 years post-HSCT for all patients was 78% and 71%, and EFS was 65% and 62%, respectively, with low rates of severe acute (8%) or extensive chronic (7%) graft-versus-host disease. On univariate analysis, OS and EFS were inferior in patients with primary antibody deficiency, bronchiectasis, prior splenectomy, hepatic comorbidity, and higher hematopoietic cell transplant comorbidity index scores. On multivariable analysis, EFS was inferior in those with a higher number of IEI-associated complications. Neither age nor donor had a significant effect on OS or EFS. We have identified age-independent risk factors for adverse outcome, providing much needed evidence to identify which patients are most likely to benefit from HSCT.
This is the largest cohort of transplanted adolescent and adult IEI patients studied to date, detailing outcomes for 329 patients.
This study demonstrates OS and EFS and identifies adverse risk factors to help identify patients most likely to benefit from HSCT.