Childhood HL survivors are at elevated risk for neurocognitive impairment due to modifiable factors such as exercise and smoking.
Long-term survivors of childhood Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) experience a high burden of chronic health morbidities. Correlates of neurocognitive and psychosocial morbidity have not been well established. A total of 1760 survivors of HL (mean ± SD age, 37.5 ± 6.0 years; time since diagnosis, 23.6 ± 4.7 years; 52.1% female) and 3180 siblings (mean age, 33.2 ± 8.5 years; 54.5% female) completed cross-sectional surveys assessing neurocognitive function, emotional distress, quality of life, social attainment, smoking, and physical activity. Treatment exposures were abstracted from medical records. Chronic health conditions were graded according to the National Cancer Institute’s Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.3 (1 = mild, 2 = moderate, 3 = severe/disabling, and 4 = life-threatening). Multivariable analyses, adjusted for age, sex, and race, estimated relative risk (RR) of impairment in survivors vs siblings and, among survivors, risk of impairment associated with demographic, clinical, treatment, and grade 2 or higher chronic health conditions. Compared with siblings, survivors had significantly higher risk (all, P < .05) of neurocognitive impairment (eg, memory, 8.1% vs 5.7%), anxiety (7.0% vs 5.4%), depression (9.1% vs 7%), unemployment (9.6% vs 4.4%), and impaired physical/mental quality of life (eg, physical function, 11.2% vs 3.0%). Smoking was associated with a higher risk of impairment in task efficiency (RR, 1.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-2.39), emotional regulation (RR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.35-2.49), anxiety (RR, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.51-3.93), and depression (RR, 2.73; 95% CI, 1.85-4.04). Meeting the exercise guidelines of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention was associated with a lower risk of impairment in task efficiency (RR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.52-0.95), organization (RR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.45-0.80), depression (RR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.48-0.92), and multiple quality of life domains. Cardiovascular and neurologic conditions were associated with impairment in nearly all domains. Survivors of HL are at elevated risk for neurocognitive and psychosocial impairment, and risk is associated with modifiable factors that provide targets for interventions to improve long-term functional outcomes.
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