Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) is a rare hematological disorder with multiple etiologies. The multifaceted nature of this disease is emphasized by the variety of concomitant clinical features. Classic idiopathic presentation aside, prompt recognition of pathogenetic clues is important because of their diagnostic and therapeutic implications. As a consequence, treatment of PRCA is diverse and strictly dependent on the presented clinical scenario. Here, we propose a series of clinical vignettes that showcase instructive representative situations derived from our routine clinical practice. Using these illustrative clinical cases, we review the diagnostic workup needed for a precise diagnosis and the currently available therapeutic options, discussing their applications in regard to the various PRCA-associated conditions and individual patients’ characteristics. Finally, we propose a treatment algorithm that may offer guidance for personalized therapeutic recommendations.