Key Points

  • Emicizumab (≥1.5 mg/kg) partially corrects blood loss in a hemophilia A bleeding model, with an FVIII equivalence of 9 U/dL.

  • Emicizumab provides additive hemostatic activity when given in combination with low-dose FVIII.

Abstract

The bispecific antibody emicizumab is increasingly used for hemophilia A treatment. However, its specificity for human factors IX and X (FIX and FX) has limited its in vivo functional analysis to primate models of acquired hemophilia. Here, we describe a novel mouse model that allows emicizumab function to be examined. Briefly, FVIII-deficient mice received IV emicizumab 24 hours before tail-clip bleeding was performed. A second infusion with human FIX and FX, administered 5 minutes before bleeding, generated consistent levels of emicizumab (0.7-19 mg/dL for 0.5-10 mg/kg doses) and of both FIX and FX (85 and 101 U/dL, respectively, after dosing at 100 U/kg). Plasma from these mice display FVIII-like activity in assays (diluted activated partial thromboplastin time and thrombin generation), similar to human samples containing emicizumab. Emicizumab doses of 1.5 mg/kg and higher significantly reduced blood loss in a tail-clip–bleeding model using FVIII-deficient mice. However, reduction was incomplete compared with mice treated with human FVIII concentrate, and no difference in efficacy between doses was observed. From this model, we deducted FVIII-like activity from emicizumab that corresponded to a dose of 4.5 U of FVIII per kilogram (ie, 9.0 U/dL). Interestingly, combined with a low FVIII dose (5 U/kg), emicizumab provided enough additive activity to allow complete bleeding arrest. This model could be useful for further in vivo analysis of emicizumab.

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