Specific phospholipid-binding proteins and phospholipase eliminate muscle myosin-supported prothrombinase activity.
Previously unreported tissue factor-like activity, also present, contributes to myosin procoagulant function.
Recent reports indicate that suspended skeletal and cardiac myosin, such as might be released during injury, can act as procoagulants by providing membrane-like support for factors Xa and Va in the prothrombinase complex. Further, skeletal myosin provides membrane-like support for activated protein C. This raises the question of whether purified muscle myosins retain procoagulant phospholipid through purification. We found that lactadherin, a phosphatidyl-l-serine–binding protein, blocked >99% of prothrombinase activity supported by rabbit skeletal and by bovine cardiac myosin. Similarly, annexin A5 and phospholipase A2 blocked >95% of myosin-supported activity, confirming that contaminating phospholipid is required to support myosin-related prothrombinase activity. We asked whether contaminating phospholipid in myosin preparations may also contain tissue factor (TF). Skeletal myosin supported factor VIIa cleavage of factor X equivalent to contamination by ∼1:100 000 TF/myosin, whereas cardiac myosin had TF-like activity >10-fold higher. TF pathway inhibitor inhibited the TF-like activity similar to control TF. These results indicate that purified skeletal muscle and cardiac myosins support the prothrombinase complex indirectly through contaminating phospholipid and also support factor X activation through TF-like activity. Our findings suggest a previously unstudied affinity of skeletal and cardiac myosin for phospholipid membranes.