The benefit of GO in non-CBF AML patients with favorable or intermediate ELN 2017 risk is restricted to those with signaling mutations.
Higher CD33 expression levels on non-CBF AML blasts correlate with the presence of activating signaling mutations.
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a highly heterogeneous disease both in terms of genetic background and response to chemotherapy. Although molecular aberrations are routinely used to stratify AML patients into prognostic subgroups when receiving standard chemotherapy, the predictive value of the genetic background and co-occurring mutations remains to be assessed when using newly approved antileukemic drugs. In the present study, we retrospectively addressed the question of the predictive value of molecular events on the benefit of the addition of gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO) to standard front-line chemotherapy. Using the more recent European LeukemiaNet (ELN) 2017 risk classification, we confirmed that the benefit of GO was restricted to the favorable (hazard ratio [HR], 0.54, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.30-0.98) and intermediate (HR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.33-1.00) risk categories, whereas it did not influence the outcome of patients within the adverse risk subgroup (HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.61-1.43). Interestingly, the benefit of GO was significant for patients with activating signaling mutations (HR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.28-0.65), which correlated with higher CD33 expression levels. These results suggest that molecular aberrations could be critical for future differentially tailored treatments based on integrated genetic profiles that are able to predict the benefit of GO on outcome.