Adaptive resistance is often associated with TP53 abnormalities or kinase activation, particularly FLT3 internal tandem duplication.
NPM1 mutation is associated with excellent survival prospects and durable molecular remission after venetoclax-based combination therapy.
The BCL-2 inhibitor venetoclax combined with hypomethylating agents or low-dose cytarabine represents an important new therapy for older or unfit patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We analyzed 81 patients receiving these venetoclax-based combinations to identify molecular correlates of durable remission, response followed by relapse (adaptive resistance), or refractory disease (primary resistance). High response rates and durable remissions were typically associated with NPM1 or IDH2 mutations, with prolonged molecular remissions prevalent for NPM1 mutations. Primary and adaptive resistance to venetoclax-based combinations was most commonly characterized by acquisition or enrichment of clones activating signaling pathways such as FLT3 or RAS or biallelically perturbing TP53. Single-cell studies highlighted the polyclonal nature of intratumoral resistance mechanisms in some cases. Among cases that were primary refractory, we identified heterogeneous and sometimes divergent interval changes in leukemic clones within a single cycle of therapy, highlighting the dynamic and rapid occurrence of therapeutic selection in AML. In functional studies, FLT3 internal tandem duplication gain or TP53 loss conferred cross-resistance to both venetoclax and cytotoxic-based therapies. Collectively, we highlight molecular determinants of outcome with clinical relevance to patients with AML receiving venetoclax-based combination therapies.