NS-causing SHP2 gain-of-function mutation induces a signaling defect–related thrombopathy with an increased bleeding risk.
NSML-causing SHP2 loss of function induces an elevated platelet response to collagen at high shear rate.
Src homology 2 domain–containing phosphatase 2 (SHP2), encoded by the PTPN11 gene, is a ubiquitous protein tyrosine phosphatase that is a critical regulator of signal transduction. Germ line mutations in the PTPN11 gene responsible for catalytic gain or loss of function of SHP2 cause 2 disorders with multiple organ defects: Noonan syndrome (NS) and NS with multiple lentigines (NSML), respectively. Bleeding anomalies have been frequently reported in NS, but causes remain unclear. This study investigates platelet activation in patients with NS and NSML and in 2 mouse models carrying PTPN11 mutations responsible for these 2 syndromes. Platelets from NS mice and patients displayed a significant reduction in aggregation induced by low concentrations of GPVI and CLEC-2 agonists and a decrease in thrombus growth on a collagen surface under arterial shear stress. This was associated with deficiencies in GPVI and αIIbβ3 integrin signaling, platelet secretion, and thromboxane A2 generation. Similarly, arterial thrombus formation was significantly reduced in response to a local carotid injury in NS mice, associated with a significant increase in tail bleeding time. In contrast, NSML mouse platelets exhibited increased platelet activation after GPVI and CLEC-2 stimulation and enhanced platelet thrombotic phenotype on collagen matrix under shear stress. Blood samples from NSML patients also showed a shear stress–dependent elevation of platelet responses on collagen matrix. This study brings new insights into the understanding of SHP2 function in platelets, points to new thrombopathies linked to platelet signaling defects, and provides important information for the medical care of patients with NS in situations involving risk of bleeding.