Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is the model cancer, demonstrating the clinical benefits of targeted therapy and the power of molecular diagnostics and monitoring. In CML, the BCR-ABL1 fusion gene and its companion messenger RNA offers a unique target differentiating cancer from the normal cell, affording the potential for very sensitive and specific assays. Because CML is such an ideal model, new methods are arising that should make testing in CML faster, more reliable, and reach a greater sensitivity. New ultrasensitive sequencing approaches, coupled with single-cell genomic approaches, further the study of measurable residual disease, clonal heterogeneity, and promise to make clinical trials more innovative and informative. These methods should be able to be transferred to other hematological and solid malignancies.