Anemia of lower-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF) generally becomes resistant to available treatments, leading to red blood cell (RBC) transfusions, iron overload, shortened survival, and poor quality of life. The transforming growth factor-β superfamily, including activins and growth differentiation factors (GDFs), is aberrantly expressed in lower-risk MDSs and PMF. Luspatercept (and sotatercept), ligand traps that particularly inhibit GDF11, lead to RBC transfusion independence in 10% to 50% of lower-risk MDSs resistant to available treatments, and have started to be used in PMF.

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